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    51.9% in the RRT-Post patients (p?<?0.01). The duration of RRT was significantly shorter in the RRT-Pre patients than that in the RRT-Post patients (5.3?��?2.1 vs. 17.8?��?14.1?d, p?=?0.02). The mean duration between starting RRT and LDLT was 2.1?��?0.7?d in the Pre-RRT patients. Conclusion:? The RRT-Pre patients had excellent outcomes because the severe condition was primarily treated by LDLT after short-term pre-transplant RRT. Post-transplant uncontrollable sepsis was the major cause of graft loss in patients who receive RRT after LDLT. ""Kobashigawa JA, Patel JK, Kittleson MM, Kawano MA, Kiyosaki KK, Davis SN, Moriguchi JD, Reed EF, Ardehali AA. The long-term outcome of treated sensitized patients who undergo heart transplantation. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: E61�CE67. ? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:? Background:? Sensitized patients prior to heart transplantation are reportedly at risk LY294002 solubility dmso for hyperacute rejection and for poor outcome after heart transplantation. It is not known whether the reduction of circulating antibodies pre-transplant alters post-transplant outcome. Methods and Results:? Between July 1993 and July 2003, we reviewed 523 heart transplant patients of which 95 had pre-transplant panel reactive antibody (PRAs) >10%; 21/95 were treated pre-transplant for circulating antibodies. These 21 patients had PRAs?>?10% (majority 50�C100%) and were treated with combination therapy including plasmapheresis, intravenous gamma globulin and rituximab to reduce antibody counts. The 74 untreated patients with PRAs?>?10% (untreated sensitized group) and those patients with PRAs?<?10% (control group) were used for comparison. Routine post-transplant immunosuppression included triple-drug therapy. After desensitization therapy, circulating antibody levels pre-transplant decreased from a mean of 70.5 to 30.2%, which resulted in a negative prospective donor-specific crossmatch and successful heart transplantation. Compared to the untreated sensitized group and the control group, the treated sensitized group had similar five-yr survival (81.1% and 75.7% vs. 71.4%, respectively, p?=?0.523) and freedom from cardiac allograft vasculopathy (74.3% and 72.7% vs. 76.2%, respectively, p?=?0.850). Conclusion:? Treatment of sensitized patients pre-transplant appears to result in acceptable long-term outcome after heart transplantation. ””Abe T, Ichimaru N, Kakuta Y, Okumi M, Imamura R, Isaka Y, Takahara S, Kokado Y, Okuyama A. Long-term outcome of pediatric renal transplantation: a single center experience. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: 388�C394. ? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract:? Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for pediatric end-stage renal disease. We examined 51 children <20?yr old who underwent a total of 52 living-donor renal transplantations at Osaka University Hospital between 1972 and 2004. The mean age at transplantation was 13.7 (3�C19?yr). The mean duration of follow-up was 16.5?yr.