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  • Benny Miles posted an update 11 months, 3 weeks ago

    Less than half of the VLBW group achieved a FSIQ score that reached or exceeded the average. In contrast, almost two-thirds of the comparison group did so, with this group showing a normal IQ distribution ATP7A curve. Previous findings of average FSIQ in VLBW young adults12,13 may be explained by limitations of the measurement methods applied. Tideman et?al.13 used a non-verbal test without any time limits, and Weisglas-Kuperus et?al.12 utilized a data-based IQ test developed in the Netherlands. Our findings are in agreement with several studies utilizing the standardized shortened or full WAIS and with those reporting lower IQ in young adult participants of VLBW than in comparison individuals.8,11 We were surprised to find that no participant in the VLBW group achieved a score above the average range, compared with 18% in the comparison group. However, about 9% of the young adults of VLBW, and none of the comparison individuals, had a cognitive disability (IQ <70), a prevalence that is similar to that reported elsewhere.8,20 The VLBW group achieved significantly lower scores than comparison individuals on all four WAIS indices (verbal comprehension, working memory, processing speed, and perceptual organization), perceptual organization being most affected relative to comparison individuals. This index is based on the result of subtests requiring abstract non-verbal problem-solving and visual´┐ŻCperceptual ability. This may indicate Selleck Anti-infection Compound Library that these specific problems, commonly described in VLBW children and adolescents,21 persist into adulthood. The lack of correlation between cognition and perinatal variables in VLBW participants without CP is in accordance with the findings of other follow-up studies that have experienced difficulties in identifying specific perinatal risk factors for cognitive development and function. Although reduced motor performance and CP seem related to neonatal morbidity, suggesting a lesional origin such as periventricular leukomalacia, reduced cognition is probably related more to aberrant global brain development and compromised trophic factors than to perinatal morbidity.22 The subtest profile demonstrated that the largest difference between groups was on the subtests arithmetic, block design, and matrix reasoning. The difference between groups on subtest scores was smallest on the digit span and letter´┐ŻCnumber sequencing subtests, which are part of the working memory index, and the difference was significant only when including those with CP. Arithmetic has been described as a multifaceted test, requiring verbal comprehension in addition to mathematical ability and working memory.17 In a recent review article, Taylor et?al.